When your ship gets destroyed you may lose everything in your ship. Getting your ship destroyed is different from being killed in EvE Echoes.
Your ship can get destroyed in 2 ways, by NPCs and by other players.
If you were killed by an NPC, then you can possibly recover some of your cargo. Due to the fact that NPCs can’t loot your debris.
If your ship is destroyed by a player, your salvageable modules and cargo will be available for players to loot.
You can even salvage your own wreck if your ship is destroyed by a player. Keep in mind that a player leaving your debris alone, especially when holding valuable items, are very unlikely.
If you get podded (your pod or player gets killed after your ship is destroyed) then you lose any augments you may have attached to your character. You re-spawn at the last location you registered your clone.